New prevention methods for HIV


Although individuals, health practitioners and organisations have put much effort on fighting against HIV/Aids,It is still among the major killer diseases in the country. People who are at high risk of getting HIV include gays (MSM), sexual workers, people with multiple sexual partners and people who inject illicit drugs.Recently Prep has been introduced as a new prevention method which people who don’t have HIV infection take a pill daily to reduce their risk of becoming infected.

Both PREP and PEP are medications for preventing transmission of HIV virus. Pre exposure prophylaxis(PREP) is an HIV prevention option for those people who are at a high risk of getting infected. It is highly effective for preventing HIV if used as prescribed but less effective when not taken consistently.

PREP is a once-daily pill which is supposed to be taken for 28 days before exposure to a risk of being infected.

Who is supposed to take PREP

PREP is for people who are at high risk of being infected with HIV.They include:-

  • Sexual workers
  • discordant couples(HIV positive and HIV negative partners in a sexual relationship).
  • People with multiple sexual partners.
  • Gays.

prep is supposed to be used along with safer sex practices such as condom use and regular HIV testing.This drug is taken before exposure to risk of infection.


post exposure prophylaxis is taken within 72 hrs after exposure to HIV and consist of a month of treatment.

Pep is mostly for:-

  • people who have had forced sex(rape)
  • if breakage of condom has occurred.
  • when one has had sex (unprotected) with people whose status  is unknown.




What is TB?

Tuberclosis (TB), is a disease that affects young and old, men and women, rich and poor. It is caused by a germ that destroys the lungs, but any organ such as the heart,intestines, liver or bladder can be affected.

How does someone get TB?

When someone with TB does not get treatment and coughs or spits, he or she sends thousands of gems into the air that are breathed in by other people. That’s how the infection can spread.

How do i know if i have TB?

If you have any of these symptoms , go immediately to the nearest health facility for a TB test.

  • Cough lasting more than 2 weeks.
  • Blood stained sputum
  • shortness of breath
  • chest pains
  • fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • weight loss
  • Night sweats
  • neck or joint stiffness
  • swollen belly(bloating)

Is there a cure for TB?

Yes! TB is curable if the disease is discovered early enough and the patient receives regular treatment for 6 to 8 months without interruption.TB treatment is free and available at public health facilities.

Is there a connection between TB and HIV?

There exists a strong connection! A person living with HIV has a high risk of getting TB. Although TB is curable, it is the leading cause  of death among people living with HIV. If you are HIV positive and have symptoms of TB , you should get tested and treated immediately.

How can I avoid spreading TB?

  1. When you cough or sneeze, cover your mouth or nose with a tissue paper or article of clothing.
  2. Spit into a can with sand, cover,and bury it deep when full.
  3. Leave windows open to let in sunlight and keep the house/matatus well ventilated.
  4. Ensure that you are tested and treat TB soon as possible.

TB treatment

  • TB treatment is available for free at all public health facilities.
  • TB is curable as long as the patient starts treatment as soon as possible.
  • Treatment lasts 6 to 8 months.
  • The patient must take the medication exactly as prescribed by a health professional.

Treatment should never be interrupted.

Side effects of TB medication

Nausea and vomiting

skin itch and rash

yellow eyes


pain or burning sensation of the feet

if you have any of these problems go immediately to the nearest health facility.

“Urine and tears may turn orange. This is normal and no cause for concern.”


Is a preventive and curable infection caused by parasitic protozoans belonging to the plasmodium parasite which is transmitted to people through bites of infected female anopheles mosquito.

Mode of transmission

Anopheles mosquitoes lay their eggs in water, which hatch into larvae which later grows into adult mosquitoes, The female mosquitoes seek a blood meal to nurture their eggs thus introducing the parasites into human blood (host) through bites. The parasites travel to the liver where they mature and produce affecting the cells in the liver. Malaria incubates and later presents itself with initial flu-like symptoms that include:- fever, headache and vomiting it is always fever like illness.

Malaria can progress to severe illness which could lead to death or serious brain damage especially in children and pregnant women.

Environmental and host factors that favor transmission.

climatic conditions.

Temperature There being different types of plasmodium species , the development cycle of malaria also varies differently in differently in different temperature degree.

Development of the mosquito larva depend on temperature,High temperatures increases the no. of blood meals taken and the number of eggs laid by the mosquitoes, increasing the number of mosquitoes in a given area.

Minimum temperature for mosquito development is between 8-10 degree Celsius , optimum temp is 25-40 degree Celsius and the maximum temperature is 40 degree Celsius.

Attitude:– Influences the distribution and transmission of malaria indirectly, through its effect on temperature where the higher you go the lower the temperature and the lower you go the higher the temperature.


Mosquitoes breed in water therefore right amount increases their breeding , however too much rainfall can flush away breeding habitats temporary, that’s why mosquitoes start breeding as soon as the rain stops.

Malaria vectors mainly breed in stagnant water collections, rarely in slightly moving water and not in rapidly flowing rivers and streams.

Relative humidity

This refers to the percentage of moisture in the air. Relative humidity affects malaria transmission through its effect on the activity and survival of mosquitoes.

Non-climatic factors

Malaria vectors

Female anopheles mosquito is the only one responsible for malaria transmission and different plasmodium species vary in terms of their favorable conditions for development.

Water development projects.

This include:- dams, ponds and irrigation challenges  which can increase malaria in areas near such projects.

Travelling and migration.

If one is moving from a place that is vulnerable to malaria he/she might have malaria parasites which can be transmitted to their place of destiny. It is always advisable that if one is travelling to  a place where malaria cases are intense, one should take antimalarial early in advance to increase resistance against malria.


Rural areas are said to have more malaria cases compared to urban places. This is due to bigger space in rural areas than in towns where there is high population. However construction projects in urban areas can also increase the breeding areas for mosquitoes.

Host immunity.

People with high immunity are less likely to get malaria infection while people with low immunity are highly likely to get malaria infection.

People are asked to manage their environment by clearing bushy areas and draining stagnant water, insect repellents and insecticides spray are also encouraged not forgetting sleeping under treated mosquito net as prevention measures for malaria.

Interventions for malaria.